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APOC[ T ]   PHOTO[ 126.00 127.00 128.00 128.10 129.00 331.00 ]

CYCLE[ Christ, Passion; Christ, youth;  Christ, Good Shepherd ]

MEDIUM[ sculpture; ivory casket ]


PROVENANCE[ Church of S. Giulia, Brescia ]

LOCATION[ Museo Civico Cristiano (formerly Church of  S. Giulia) ]

CITY[ Brescia ]   STATE[ Italy ]    DATE[ ca. 360 ]  CENTURY[ 4, 5 ]

TEXT[ APt; Christ, Youth]

DESCRIPTION[ The casket is also known as "Lipsanoteca".  "The most important ivory reliquary of Christian antiquity"--So Elbern in Weitzmann, Age of Spirituality (1979) 598. FRONT: (126.00). Four zones. Top: Five heads, likely apostles.  Second Zone: Left: Jonah is thrown into the sea and swallowed by the Ketos.  Center: Keyhole.  Right: Jonah is vomited up by the Ketos.  Third Zone: Left is the Hemorrhageia on the left, kneels before a beardless long-locked Christ. Center: Christ, beardless, long-locked, with a scroll stretched out in his hands, stands center.  He is flanked by seated auditors, one holds a child who reaches up toward Christ.  The scene is in an architectural setting with curtains drawn back and tied to columns on each side.  Right:  Christ as Door. Christ, beardless and long-locked stands in an arched doorway, defending the door against a wolf.  Two zones are to his right.  The upper contains three sheep.  The wolf is in the lower. Bottom Zone: On the left is Susanna, standing orans.  She is flanked by two trees.  Behind each is an elder, spying on her.  Center: the arrest of Christ, with a beardless Christ flanked by two soldiers, who lead him toward a man seated on a chair.  Right: Daniel stands orans, nude, flanked by two lions. On extreme left of third zone is a fish, vertical.  On the right is a cock standing on a pedestal. TOP: (128.00).  Top Zone:  Four heads in medallions. Second Zone: Left is a female figure, between two trees.  She stands orans, her head half turned to the right.  Center: Jonah rests nude in the Endymion pose under the gourd vine.  Right: A man holding a staff is on the left,facing a serpent twined around a tree (Daniel or Peter or Paul  ?).  Third Zone:  Left is Christ, beardless, and long-locked, flanked by two apostles, walking on water.  A hand of God descends from above, pointing at Jesus.  Center: Ananias and Saphira.  The female stands center, facing half left toward a seated male figure, passing judgment.  A sack of goods is at her feet, to the left.  The male, beardless, is carried off to the right by five men.  On the extreme left, in a separate zone is a tower. On the extreme right, Judas hangs himself.  Fourth Zone:  On the left, Pharoah's daughter and two attendants move toward the right where Moses lies in his basket among the rushes.  Left center:  Moses is slaying an Egyptian.  A column is to the right.  Center: A figure pours from a small jug into a vat on his left.  To the right five figures are seated at a sigma table. Cana ? BACK:  (127.10)  Three Zones.  Top Zone: Birds and animals.  Second Zone: Left is Christ, beardless, with curled hair.  Stands between two trees.  Gethsemane. Center:  Christ stands on the left, beardless, facing half right.  To his right, in the center, are four soldies with lances; two have shields.  On their left is a youth with a torch.  Left: Peter, denial. Peter, with his right hand to his mouth, faces left toward a woman who faces him.  To Peter's right is a cock on a square pedestal.   Third Zone:  On the left is Caiaphas, seated on a backed chair, with one attendant to his right.  Caiaphas faces full left toward Christ who is beardless, long-locked, flanked by two two captors.  Center and left is Pilate, enthroned, facing front, washing his hands in a bowl into which a servant pours water.  One attendant stands to Pilate's left, three to the right.  On the far right, Christ stands, facing half toward Pilate, flanked by two soldiers.  LEFT END: (129.10) Three zones.  Top Zone: David on the far left, slays Goliath. Center is a lion and an ass.  The ass stands over a grave- wrapped figure.  On the far right is Elijah, facing half left, his hand stretched toward an altar upon which there is a fire.  Elijah on Mt. Horeb. Second Zone: Unidentified.  (Joseph and Potiphar's Wife ?) It is the large zone.  A beardless, long- locked male is on the left, half facing a female half lying on a  throne-like couch. Two the left of the woman is a group of four females, conversing.  Third Zone:  On the left is the Golden Calf, on an altar, the the children of Israel dancing in front of the calf.  On the center and right, a figure stands center, facing right, holding out a cup with his right hand, and a basket is in his left hand. To his right are five men sitting around a sigma table on which there are loaves and plates.   The seated man on the far left extends his cup to the man in the center.  Loaves and Fishes ?  Cana ? RIGHT END: (128.10)  Three zones.  Top Zone:  Left: Moses, facing right, takes off his sandle as he faces the burning bush; a hand of God is in the upper right of the scene. Center: The Hebrew children are in the fiery furnace.  Right may be Moses receiving the decalogue, with the head of God in the upper left of the scene. ? Second Zone:  Large zone. On the left, Christ, beardless and long-locked, faces right, healing the blind man.  On the left, Christ, beardless, with a wand in his right hand, raises Lazarus. Third Zone:  On the left are four sheep.  In the center is a woman at  the left of a well.  To the right of the well is a man, facing left, with a staff. Rebecca and Jacob?  On the right is Jacob wrestling with an angel.  On the far right is a figure climbing a ladder (angel and the ladders to heaven ?). An exploded view of the casket is 331.00. A view of the casket  from the right front is 129.00]

BIBLIOGRAPHY[ J. Kollwitz, Die Lipsanothek von Brescia, Berlin (1933) // Volbach, Elfenbeinarbeiten,  56, nr. 107, pl. 31 // Volbach, Early Christian Art, pl. 85, 86, 88 // Weitzmann, ed., Age of Spirituality (1979) fig. 87 // Gough, Origins of Christian Art (1971) 127-29, fig. 114-15 // Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine Art (1970) pl. 35 //  Schiller, Iconography 2, fig. 10]

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